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 HEALTH FORUMS for Spinone Italiano
 Dentition
 Malocclusion Of Teeth
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Author Previous Topic: Geppetto''s Tooth Abcess Saga Topic   
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Anatomy
Dogs normally have twenty-eight deciduous (primary or baby) teeth that erupt during the first six months of life. Most breeds have forty-two adult teeth. There are four types of teeth. Incisors are the smaller teeth located between the canines on the upper and lower jaws. They are used for grasping food and help keep the tongue within the mouth. Canines (also called cuspids or fang teeth) are located on the sides of the incisors and used to grasp food. Premolars (bicuspids) are for shearing or cutting food and are located behind the canines. The molars are the last teeth in the mouth. They are used for grinding nourishment for entry into the esophagus.

Occlusion
The way teeth align with each other is termed occlusion. Normal occlusion in most breeds consists of the upper (maxillary) incisors just overlapping the lower (mandibular) incisors (scissor bite). The lower canine should be located equidistant between the last (lateral) incisor and the upper canine tooth. Premolar tips of the lower jaw should point between the spaces of the upper jaw teeth. Flat faced breeds (Boxers, Shih-Tzu, and Lhasa Apso) normally do not have scissor bites.

Malocclusion
Malocclusion refers to abnormal tooth alignment. Overbite (overshot, class two, overjet, mandibular brachygnathism) occurs when the lower jaw is shorter that the upper. There is a gap between the upper and lower incisors when the mouth is closed. The upper premolars are displaced at least twenty-five percent toward the front, when compared to the lower premolars. An underbite (undershot, reverse scissor bite, prognathism, class 3) occurs when the lower teeth protrude in front of the upper jaw teeth. If the upper and lower incisor teeth meet each other edge to edge, the occlusion is an even or level bite. When the upper and lower incisors do not overlap or even meet each other when the mouth is closed, the pet has an open bite. Anterior crossbite occurs when the canine and premolar teeth on both sides of the mouth occlude normally but one or more of the lower incisors are positioned in front of the upper incisors. Anterior crossbite is the most common malocclusion, is not considered genetic or hereditary, and is correctable. If there is an anterior crossbite there must be a condition termed posterior crossbite. Posterior crossbite occurs when one or more of the premolar lower jaw teeth overlap the upper jaw teeth. This is a rare condition that occurs in the larger-nosed dog breeds. A wry mouth or bite occurs when one side of the jaw grows longer than the other. It is considered hereditary and difficult to correct. Base narrow canines occur when the lower canine teeth protrude inward and can damage the upper palate. Often this condition is due to retained baby teeth and can usually be corrected through inclined planes used to push the teeth into normal occlusion.


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